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Direct And Indirect Speech PDF

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Direct And Indirect Speech PDF

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SOME IMPORTANT QUESTIONS

Table of Contents

  1. Direct Narration
  2. Indirect Narration
  3. Reporting Speech
  4. Reported Speech
  5. Rules for Changing Direct Narration into Indirect Narration
  6. Rules for Connectives
  7. Rules for Change in Tense
  8. Rule 1
  9. Rule 2 
  10. Rule 3
  11. Rule 4
  12. Rule 5 
  13. Rule 6
  14. Rule 7
  15. Rule 8
  16. Rules for change in Person
  17. Rule 1
  18. Rule 2
  19. Rule 3
  20. Miscellaneous Change
  21. Sentence Beginning With ‘Let’

Direct Speech

It is the method in which the actual words of the speaker are reported within Inverted commas. For Example

 

(i) Mohan says, “he is my friend”.

 

(ii) Ram said, “he is going”.

 

Indirect Speech

It is the  method in which the substance or idea of the speaker’s words is reported without using his actual works.

 

The sentence given above is converted into Indirect Narration.

 

For Example

 

(i) Mohan says that he is my friend.

 

(ii) Ram said that he is going.

 

Reporting Speech

The part of the whole sentence outside the Inverted Commas in Direct Narration is called Reporting Speech, and the verb used in this part is called  Reporting Speech.

 

Reported Speech

The part of the whole sentence in which the actual words of the speaker are written within the Inverted Commas is  called the Reported Speech, and the verb used in this part is called Reported Verb.

 

Rules for Changing Direct Narration into Indirect Narration

The rules for changing Direct Narration into Indirect Narration is divided into four parts.

 

1. Rules for Connectives

 

2. Rules for change in Sentence

 

3. Rules for change of Persons

 

4. Other rules for Miscellaneous Changes

 

Rules for Connectives

When the entire sentence is required to be change from Direct Narration into Indirect Narration. the two parts of the sentence is likely to be joined by some connectives. The following are these rules.

 

(A) Interrogative Sentence: If the Reported speech is in the form of an Interrogative sentence, it can be connected in two ways according to the structure of the Interrogative sentence.

 

 

 

(i) If the interrogative sentence  begins with an Interrogative Adverb( What, Why, Where, How, When etc ) or with an Interrogative Adjective / Pronoun ( Who, Whose, Whom, What, Which etc. ) no connectives is required to join it. It is a mistake to use that to connect such a sentence. For Example

 

Direct: He said,  “where are you going” ?

 

Indirect: He asked me where i was going ?

 

(ii) If the Interrogative sentence begins with the Auxiliary Verb / Helping Verb, the connective Whether  or if  is used to join it. For Example

 

Direct: Ha said, “Is he doctor ?

 

Indirect: He said whether he was doctor.

 

Direct: I said, ” Do you smoke”?

 

Indirect: I asked whether you smoke.

 

(iii) If the reported speech begins with the Do  or Does, then Do and Does is removed from the reported speech,and in their place the Past Indefinite Tense of the main verb is used. For Example

 

Direct: He said to Ram,”Do you know his name”.

 

Indirect: He asked Ram whether he knew his name.

 

Direct: Ram said to him,”Does Suresh Go to School”.

 

Indirect: Ram asked him whether Suresh goes to School.

 

(iv) If the Reported Speech begins with the Auxiliary Verb Did then the did is removed  and the Past Perfect form of  the main verb is used. For Example

 

 

Direct: I said to him,”Did you go to School yesterday”.

 

Indirect: I asked him whether he had gone to school the previous day.

 

(B) Assertive Sentence: If the reported speech is in the  form of assertive sentence, then the connective that is  used to join two sentence. For Example

 

Direct: He said, “He is going to home”.

 

Indirect:  He said that he was going to home.

 

(C) Imperative Sentence:  If the reported speech is in the form of Imperative sentence, then the no connective is used to join two sentence but the main verb of the Imperative sentence is converted into an Infinite Verb. For Example

 

Direct:   He said to the servant,”Close the door.”

 

Indirect:  He asked  the  servant to close the door.

 

Direct: He said,”Please give me a glass of water.”

 

Indirect:  He requested to give him a glass of water.

 

(D) Exclamatory Sentence: If the Reported Speech is in the form of Exclamatory Sentence ( indicating surprise, fear, wish or contempt etc. ),  it is changed into an assertive sentence in the Indirect Narration form and connective that is used to join it with the Reporting speech. For Example

 

Direct: He said,” What a horrible scene ?

 

Indirect: He said that it was a horrible scene.

 

(E) Exclamatory sentence:  The sentences which carry the sense of sudden joy, sorrow, Wonder, disappointment are called exclamatory sentence. These sentences generally begins with word Alas, Oh, Hurrah, Bravo, How, What a, etc.

 

(i) In place of the Reporting Verb ‘Said’ some other verbs as Exclaimed, Wished and Prayed are used according to the sentence.

 

(ii) Connective ‘that’  is used.

 

(iii) After the Reporting Verb, we use such expressions as Joyfully, Sorrowfully, With Sorrow, With Joy, In astonishment, according to the sense.

 

(iv) Exclamatory sentence is changed into assertive sentence.

 

(v)  The  rules for change for Tense and Pronoun are the same as used in assertive sentence.

 

Direct: He said,”Alas, I am ruined”.

 

Indirect: He exclaimed that he was ruined.

 

Direct: He said, “O, what a chance !.

 

Indirect: He exclaimed that it was a fine chance.

 

Rules for Change in Tense

Rule 1

It should first be remembered that no change is ever made in the Tense of the Reporting Verb. but of course, without changing the tense, the verb can be changed according to the sense of the Reported Speech. For Example, In place of say or said , we can use tell or told , or we can use replied, remarked, asked, observed, declared etc. according to the sense. But in no case there should be  a change in the tense of the Reporting Speech.

 

Rule 2 

If the Reporting Verb is in the Present or Future Tense, no change is made in the tense of the Reported Verb, But of course, the form of the auxiliary verb will change according to the change in the person of the Subject in the Indirect Narration Form. For Example am can be changed into is or are; or do  and have can be changed into  does or has, but no change can be made in the tense in the process of this change. For Example

 

 

Direct: He says, ” I am not feeling well today”.

 

Indirect: He says that he is not feeling well today.

 

Direct: He will say to me, “you are not kind to me.”

 

Indirect: He will tell me that I am not kind to him.

 

Rule 3

If the reported speech is in the Past Tense, the tense of the reported speech is changed according to the following rules.(I) (A) Present Indefinite is changed into Past  Indefinite tense. For Example

 

Direct: He said,”I am unwell”.

 

Indirect: He said that he was unwell.

 

(B) Present Continuous  is converted into Past Continuous Tense. For Example

 

Direct:  He said,”my father is reading a books”.

 

Indirect: He said that his father was reading a book.

 

(C) Present Perfect  is changed into Past Perfect Continuous Tense. For Example

 

Direct: He said,”I have passed the examination”.

 

Indirect: He said that he had passe the examination.

 

(D) Present Perfect Continuous Tense is converted into Past Perfect Continuous Tense. For Example

 

Direct: Mohan said,”I have been working hard since July”.

 

Indirect: Mohan said that he had been working hard since July.

 

(II) (A) Ordinarily no change is made in the Past Indefinite Tense, but sometimes it is changed into Past Perfect Tense. For Example

 

Direct: Rams said,”He visited Delhi last year”.

 

Indirect: Ram said that he visited Delhi last year.

 

Direct: He said,”the horse died last night”.

 

Indirect: He said that the horse had died last night.

 

(B) Past Continuous Tense is converted into Past Perfect Continuous Tense. For Example

 

Direct: He said,”my brother was working in this factory”.

 

 

 

Indirect: He said that his brother had been working

 

(C) No change is made in the Past Perfect and Past Perfect Continuous Tense. For Example

 

Direct: He said,”I had finished my work long ago”.

 

Indirect: He said that he had finished his work long ago.

 

Direct: Ram said,”I had been doing that work for several years”.

 

Indirect: Ram said that he had been doing these work for several years.

 

Rule 4

Will and Shall  of the future tense are changed into Would and Should. For Example

 

Direct: He said,”Ram will go to the market”.

 

Indirect: He said that Ram would go to the market.

 

Direct: He said,”I shall definitely do this work”.

 

Indirect: He said that he should definitely do this work.

 

Rule 5 

May is changed into Might and Can is changed into Could. For Example

 

Direct: He said,”I can do this work”.

 

Indirect: He said that he could do this work.

 

Direct: The teacher said,”he may be allowed to go”.

 

Indirect: The teacher said that he might be allowed to go.

 

Rule 6

No change is made in the Must. For Example

 

Direct:  He said,”I must go at once”.

 

Indirect: He said that he must go at once.

 

Rule 7

If the reported speech refers to some universal truth or habitual action, no change is made in the tense of the reported verb, even if the reporting  verb in the past tense. For Example

 

Direct: The teacher said in the class,”the sun rises in the east”.

 

Indirect: The teacher said in the class that the sun rises in the east.

 

Direct: He said,”Man lives by beard”.

 

Indirect: He said that man lives by beard.

 

Rule 8

When words like sir, your Honour, Your majesty, Please, Kindly etc. are used in the reported speech, their sense is expressed by using the following expressions with the reporting Verb, and these are dropped. For Example

 

Direct: The student said to the teacher,”Sir, mark me present”.

 

Indirect: The student respectfully requested the teacher to mark present.

 

Rules for change in Person

All pronouns (I, We, You, He, she, they) used in the reported speech are changed according to the following rules.

 

Rule 1

Every First Person Pronoun used in the reported speech is changed according to the person of the Subject of the Reporting Speech. For Example

 

Direct: He said,”I am doing my work”.

 

Indirect: He said that he was doing his work.

 

Rule 2

Every second person in the reported speech is changed according to the person of the Object of the reporting speech. For Example

 

 

Direct: Mohan said to you,“you are not doing your work seriously”.

 

Indirect: Mohan told you that you were not doing your work seriously.

 

Direct:  Ramesh said to me, “You are not doing your work seriously”.

 

Indirect: Ramesh told me that i was not doing my work seriously.

 

Rule 3

No change is made in the third person pronoun.

 

Miscellaneous Changes

Some words used in the reported speech are changed as listed given below

 

Words                            Changed From

 

Now                     –             Then

 

This or These      –             That or Those

 

Hither                  –             Thither

 

Here                   –              There

 

Hence                –               Thence

 

Thus                  –                So

 

Come                –                Go

 

Tomorrow         –                 Next day

 

Today              –                  That Day

 

Yesterday       –                   The Previous Day

 

Last Night       –                   The Previous Night

 

Ago                 –                   Before

 

Sentence Beginning With ‘Let’

Sentences beginning with ‘Let’ express the sense of  Order, Wish, Proposal, Imagining, Condition etc. They are converted into Indirect Narration according to the sense. The Reporting Verb is changed into Ordered, Requested, Proposed,Wished, support etc. according to the sense.In all such sentences, ‘Let’ is removed and connective ‘That’ is used. In Place of ‘Let’ we use should. For Example 

Direct: The Principal said,”Let no student stand here”.

Indirect: The Principal ordered that no student should stand there. 

Direct: The boy said,” Let me go out to play”.

Indirect: The boy wished that he should go out to play.

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